<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml'/>
Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

.header {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.headerShadow {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerForeground {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.headerForeground a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}

	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
.tabUnselected {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.tabContents .button {border:0;}

#sidebar {}
#sidebarOptions input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizard h1 {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:none;}
.wizard h2 {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:none;}
.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
	border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
.wizardFooter .status {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.sparkline {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:0;}
.sparktick {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:'alpha(opacity:60)';}
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0em 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0em 1em 1em; left:0px; top:0px;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0em 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 .3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0em 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0em 0em 0em 0em; margin:0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0em 0em 0em 0em; margin:0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0em 0em 0em; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0em;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0em 0.4em 0em 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em 0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0em; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0em;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0em 0em 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0em 0em 0em 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0em 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0em 1em;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0em 0.25em; padding:0em 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0px 3px 0px 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0em; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0px; padding-bottom:0px;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px 1px 0px;}

.sparkline {line-height:1em;}
.sparktick {outline:0;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0em; right:0em;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em 0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em 0.1em 0.1em 0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; margin:0em 3em 0em 3em; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none ! important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em 1em;}
/* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
noscript {display:none;}
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler > fields syncing permalink references jump'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar +saveTiddler -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser'></span></div>
To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups
<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch
<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations

Also see AdvancedOptions
The case studies show good practice and lessons learned from The Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (£30m for software in HE) and the Metropolitan Area Networks (~MANs) in Scotland. LDTI was a late- 1990s project supporting these initiatives.

The teaching subjects covered are:
# Evaluating a tutorial package for chemistry
# Mahakali - a World Bank simulation of irrigation projects
#implementation of CALL across a modern languages faculty
#Utilising support agencies when integrating technology into teaching and learning
#Learning Technology in the Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences at the University of Glasgow
#Descepticising some sceptics
#Life Sciences Assessment Group

The Keyword in Context program allows researchers to move between instances of a word and the textual context. Particular words are chosen and their use codified and counted - allowing an objective comparison of interactions before and after the coaching intervention. This brings together "different levels of abstraction"
Computers and Education 43 (2004) pp17-33

A kind of thought experiment where a model is tested to see how it fits with a series of different theoretical positions.. 1C non interventionist documents artefacts and records
Reading 11 
(2005)  in Monteith, M. (ed.) Teaching Secondary School Literacies with ICT, Maidenhead, Open University Press.

critique of experimental approaches - however there is still a place for some orchestrated research. Observation of system logs (non interventionist)
|''Description:''|Support for cryptographic functions|
if(!version.extensions.CryptoFunctionsPlugin) {
version.extensions.CryptoFunctionsPlugin = {installed:true};

//-- Crypto functions and associated conversion routines

// Crypto "namespace"
function Crypto() {}

// Convert a string to an array of big-endian 32-bit words
Crypto.strToBe32s = function(str)
	var be = Array();
	var len = Math.floor(str.length/4);
	var i, j;
	for(i=0, j=0; i<len; i++, j+=4) {
		be[i] = ((str.charCodeAt(j)&0xff) << 24)|((str.charCodeAt(j+1)&0xff) << 16)|((str.charCodeAt(j+2)&0xff) << 8)|(str.charCodeAt(j+3)&0xff);
	while (j<str.length) {
		be[j>>2] |= (str.charCodeAt(j)&0xff)<<(24-(j*8)%32);
	return be;

// Convert an array of big-endian 32-bit words to a string
Crypto.be32sToStr = function(be)
	var str = "";
	for(var i=0;i<be.length*32;i+=8)
		str += String.fromCharCode((be[i>>5]>>>(24-i%32)) & 0xff);
	return str;

// Convert an array of big-endian 32-bit words to a hex string
Crypto.be32sToHex = function(be)
	var hex = "0123456789ABCDEF";
	var str = "";
	for(var i=0;i<be.length*4;i++)
		str += hex.charAt((be[i>>2]>>((3-i%4)*8+4))&0xF) + hex.charAt((be[i>>2]>>((3-i%4)*8))&0xF);
	return str;

// Return, in hex, the SHA-1 hash of a string
Crypto.hexSha1Str = function(str)
	return Crypto.be32sToHex(Crypto.sha1Str(str));

// Return the SHA-1 hash of a string
Crypto.sha1Str = function(str)
	return Crypto.sha1(Crypto.strToBe32s(str),str.length);

// Calculate the SHA-1 hash of an array of blen bytes of big-endian 32-bit words
Crypto.sha1 = function(x,blen)
	// Add 32-bit integers, wrapping at 32 bits
	add32 = function(a,b)
		var lsw = (a&0xFFFF)+(b&0xFFFF);
		var msw = (a>>16)+(b>>16)+(lsw>>16);
		return (msw<<16)|(lsw&0xFFFF);
	// Add five 32-bit integers, wrapping at 32 bits
	add32x5 = function(a,b,c,d,e)
		var lsw = (a&0xFFFF)+(b&0xFFFF)+(c&0xFFFF)+(d&0xFFFF)+(e&0xFFFF);
		var msw = (a>>16)+(b>>16)+(c>>16)+(d>>16)+(e>>16)+(lsw>>16);
		return (msw<<16)|(lsw&0xFFFF);
	// Bitwise rotate left a 32-bit integer by 1 bit
	rol32 = function(n)
		return (n>>>31)|(n<<1);

	var len = blen*8;
	// Append padding so length in bits is 448 mod 512
	x[len>>5] |= 0x80 << (24-len%32);
	// Append length
	x[((len+64>>9)<<4)+15] = len;
	var w = Array(80);

	var k1 = 0x5A827999;
	var k2 = 0x6ED9EBA1;
	var k3 = 0x8F1BBCDC;
	var k4 = 0xCA62C1D6;

	var h0 = 0x67452301;
	var h1 = 0xEFCDAB89;
	var h2 = 0x98BADCFE;
	var h3 = 0x10325476;
	var h4 = 0xC3D2E1F0;

	for(var i=0;i<x.length;i+=16) {
		var j,t;
		var a = h0;
		var b = h1;
		var c = h2;
		var d = h3;
		var e = h4;
		for(j = 0;j<16;j++) {
			w[j] = x[i+j];
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),d^(b&(c^d)),w[j],k1);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		for(j=16;j<20;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),d^(b&(c^d)),w[j],k1);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		for(j=20;j<40;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),b^c^d,w[j],k2);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		for(j=40;j<60;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),(b&c)|(d&(b|c)),w[j],k3);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;
		for(j=60;j<80;j++) {
			w[j] = rol32(w[j-3]^w[j-8]^w[j-14]^w[j-16]);
			t = add32x5(e,(a>>>27)|(a<<5),b^c^d,w[j],k4);
			e=d; d=c; c=(b>>>2)|(b<<30); b=a; a = t;

		h0 = add32(h0,a);
		h1 = add32(h1,b);
		h2 = add32(h2,c);
		h3 = add32(h3,d);
		h4 = add32(h4,e);
	return Array(h0,h1,h2,h3,h4);

[[Hiltz and Meinke - Teaching Sociology in a Virtual Classroom]]
[[Wegerif and Mercer - CB text analysis/ collaborative learning]]
[[OECD Where do we stand?]]
[[Laurillard - How can learning technologies Improve Learning]]
[[Oliver at al. - Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology]]
[[LDTI - Case studies]]
[[Roschelle - Learning by Collaborating: Convergent conceptual change]]
[[Conoloe et al. - Mapping Pedagogy and tools for effective learning design]]
[[Jones and Preece - online communities for teachers and lifelong learners]]
[[Tolmie - examining learning in relation to the contexts of use of ICT]]
[[Crook and Dymott - ICT and the Literacy practice of Student writing]]

[[Hiltz and Meinke - Teaching Sociology in a Virtual Classroom]]
[[Wegerif and Mercer - CB text analysis/ collaborative learning]]
[[OECD Where do we stand?]]
[[Laurillard - How can learning technologies Improve Learning]]
[[Oliver at al. - Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology]]
[[LDTI - Case studies]]
[[Roschelle - Learning by Collaborating: Convergent conceptual change]]
[[Conoloe et al. - Mapping Pedagogy and tools for effective learning design]]
[[Jones and Preece - online communities for teachers and lifelong learners]]
[[Tolmie - examining learning in relation to the contexts of use of ICT]]
[[Crook and Dymott - ICT and the Literacy practice of Student writing]]
[[Laurillard - Affordances for Learning in a Non-linear Narrative medium]]
[[Jonassen and Rohrer-Murphy - Activity Theory as a Framework for designing Constructivist Learning Environments]]

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In the years before 2000 "the shift from physical to virtual campuses was even sometimes seen as a probable future for tertiary education in the medium run." Then scepticism replaced over-enthusiasm.

Elearning has not grown in line with dot-com era predictions but it is still spreading. Some general trends are seen across quite a range of different institutions.
Teaching Sociology, Vol 17 No.4 (Oct. 1989) pp431-446

Interventionist - experimental bordering on quasi-experimental
Jonassen, D. and Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999) ‘Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments’, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 61–79; also available online at http://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02299477 (Accessed 5 February 2008)

Activity theory would be consistent with a non-interventionist qualitative research methodology.
Int. J. Learning Technology vol. 2 Nov. 2/3 2006

Partly non interventionist study of online communications plus questionnaire (semi interventionist asking questions 2A)
the authors distinguish the empirical approach to research which assumes a disinterested and separate observer //out there// from the social perspective although this is really a collection of perspectives including:
#critical theory
#ethnomethodological approaches
where knowledge may be regarded as //in here// - where both research and subject matter interact to create it.
The case studeies are available online here: http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/ltdi/casestudies/cont.htm

The idea of a case study suggests less intervention. However because these are evaluations some new data had to be produced either by asking questions or quasi-experimental testing of students.
Laurillard, D., Stratfold, M., Luckin, R., Plowman, L. and Taylor, J. (2000) ‘Affordances for learning in a non-linear narrative medium’, Journal of Interactive Media in Education (JIME), vol. 2; available online at http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/00/2/

This is an experimental comparison of CD-ROMs with different designs. Interventionist 3A

This document is available on the web at http://web.archive.org/web/20070322002729/http:/www.law.warwick.ac.uk/ltj/3-2j.html

3B semi-interventionist - other people's data
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[[Conoloe et al. - Mapping Pedagogy and tools for effective learning design]]

[[Crook and Dymott - ICT and the Literacy practice of Student writing]]

[[Hiltz and Meinke - Teaching Sociology in a Virtual Classroom]]

[[Jonassen and Rohrer-Murphy - Activity Theory as a Framework for designing Constructivist Learning Environments]]

[[Laurillard - How can learning technologies Improve Learning]]

[[Laurillard - Affordances for Learning in a Non-linear Narrative medium]]

[[LDTI - Case studies]]

[[OECD Where do we stand?]]

[[Oliver at al. - Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology]]

[[Jones and Preece - online communities for teachers and lifelong learners]]

[[Roschelle - Learning by Collaborating: Convergent conceptual change]]

[[Tolmie - examining learning in relation to the contexts of use of ICT]]

[[Wegerif and Mercer - CB text analysis/ collaborative learning]]

published in English and French Paris, 2005. available online too.

A combination of semi-interventionist A. asking questions and B. Other people's data
This is chapter two of a book called "Contemporary prespectives in ~E-Learning Research: Themes, Methods and impact on Practice


The book seems to be a piece of collaborative work by participants in the field being researched, sort of participant observation. Especially because of the idea of the multi-narrative.
Laurillard mentions 6 things that evaluations of ed-tech usually conclude:
# students enthusiastic
#difference in learning outcome can't be measured
#technical etc. problems spoiled this implementation
#senior managers can help by being supportive
#accreditation affects acceptance of the medium
#potential demonstrated
Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2 (3) 1992

Non interventionist observation of turn taking and construction of meanings
Educational Technology Research TiddlyWiki
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Not clear whether Laurillard would want to argue against even trying to do evaluations effectiveness, but a very simple reading of the argument could make it look that way.

I assume Laurillard is committed to the development of technology enhanced learning and wants people to make that "Leap of Faith" - in a sense then this is an anti-research orientation.
Find out more about this interesting type of document at 'TiddlyWiki' http://www.tiddlywiki.com/
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2001) 17, 235-241

The article takes data from three studies they involve comparisons of groups (which are sometimes set up in a controlled way). Interventionist experimental...although the argument put forward seems to point to conclusions which contradict this approach....or at least the difficulty of it.
Language and Education Vol.11. No 4 1997

A combination of non-interventionist observation (of discourse) and interventionist experimental - or quasi experimental.
This TiddlyWiki is a collection of notes on the readings in H809. Instead of creating a matrix or table for dividing up the information I am using tags. Thus each entry (or tiddler) has two tags: 
- the authors and title of the piece
- one of the 6 different criteria for analysis
#ethics / unintended consequences
#findings / implications
#research questions
#theoretical approach / concepts

You can find all entries relating to a particular piece of research using the menu items in the left hand column...
They set out with over 200 variables and 50 hypotheses. Many of these were to be measured using questionnaires administered after the experimental courses.
the case studies are concentrated in 1st world and English-speaking countries. People may have chosen to respond because they were enthusiastic E-pioneers.
Sometimes language describing a widely spread phenomenon may look like endorsement or recommmendation.

announcing that nearly all institutions have a central policy on Elearning (given the small sample) could sound like a statement that this is required or good practice.
higher level students with more "cognitive maturity" and writing skills can more successfully engage in learning through collaborative activities. "cognitively immature" students want the teacher to give the right answer.
The educational perspective is described more fully in "Language and Education" Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996

a communicative sociocultural  perspective on intellectual development. This sees rational problem solving as a cultural characteristic. Based originally  on some cross-cultural research by Vygotsky (late 1920s?) "rationality is a cultural practice manifested in language use".
the children aged 9 and 10 may not have understand why the research was being carried out, would they have agreed to be studied in this way? Indeed if the purpose was explained to adults or older children it would very likely influence the speech recorded in the experiment.
the group which received coaching showed an increase in exploratory language and also an improvement in performance at the collaborative reasoning test. The control group's performance also improved but to a lesser degree.
both the children who received coaching and those who didn't achieved improved performance in the reading test. In the experimental group an increase in exploratory language was found but we don't know whether the control group also improved this aspect of their collaboration.

The task chosen was very visual and non-linguistic. This makes interpretation of the childrens' conversations more problematic. (much of it was "off-task")
there are lots of factors that may cause, relate to or coincide with success and failure in Elearning such as access, type of course, motivation and skill of students. The effect of the "virtual classroom" itself was not detectable in most courses - results were significant only for introductory computer science students.
all participants answered a questionnaire which asked for responses on a scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree). results seemed to support some hypotheses.
Background data on students was also used (SAT scores) and exam results during the course. This supported the hypothesis that the Virtual Classroom had no sigificant effect on performance. 
The methdology may have been insufficiently sensitive to detect the effect of online teaching - self-selected online groups, small numbers involved.
redesign and use of ready-made "learning objects" - would appear to be crucial in odrer for E-learning to obtain key pedagogic benefits"  p120

Little internal research evidence to the effect that Elearnign has a positive effect but widespread feeling that it does.
UK primary school 1996 Moral debate as part of the national curriculum in England and Wales
The "case study " survey has a very detailed set of questions running to 12 pages. It asks respondents to : "Please respond in terms of  faculties/departments/individuals where appropriate, as well as the institution as a whole." 
In some places the report presents data from this survey mixed in with results from a wider "observatory" survey OBHE
the research notes that "virtual classroom" is a trademark belonging to the researchers' employer.
they are interested in combining study of specific utterances with a quantitative approach where events are classified and coded for objective comparison. Certain words are indicative of "exploratory talk" such as IF, SO and BECAUSE. Presence of these can be counted in texts using the software.
problem- the task chosen is completely non-linguistic...visual recognition and interpretation of patterns.
USA 1986-88 Institute of technology (freshmen all issued with PCs) and Upsala College (small liberal arts college)
World wide but with a preponderance of English speaking countries and richer countries / OECD member nations.
here I'm interested in the iedas about learning and education which inform the research
the study seems to include (mention / hypothesise about) lots of the areas which one might want to investigate. A lot of data was collected of different types but the overall design of the research was unlikely ever to produce very convincing results in a scientific sense: self selected groups, different settings, not much repetition of the same courses.

The traditional proctored exam may not have allowed students to demonstrate the extra knowledge and skills they acquired. Significant improvement found in the computer science course may have been gained by increased familiarity with the PC rather than the teaching/ learning method itself.